Wednesday, September 3, 2014

RESEARCH ETHICS AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOLKIT FOR FUTURE LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE: A TANZANIAN PERSPECTIVE





RESEARCH ETHICS AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOLKIT FOR FUTURE LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE: A TANZANIAN PERSPECTIVE


By
Rev. Dr. Aidan G. Msafiri (PhD)
Globethics.net. East Africa(Tanzania) Advisory Board Member
Mob: +255 754 679090
E-Mail: msafiriaidan@yahoo.com

Venue:
Stella Maris Mtwara University College Mtwara,
P.O. Box 674,
Mtwara, TANZANIA

Occasion:
Globethics.net. Symposium at STEMMUCO
Date: 13th December, 2013

0             Preamble
0.1     Research: it is defined in a number of different approaches by different scholars and academicians. The following include key synonyms to the word research as a noun: investigation, experimentation, analysis, fact finding, scrutiny, probing, post mortem, inspecting, reviewing, searching for knowledge, assessing, verifying, discovering etc. It involves both content and method.
On its broadest sense, Creswell defines research as “a process of steps used to collect and analyse information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue.”[1]
       The most common steps in conducting research include:
·        Identification of the theme/problem/challenge
NB: Be specific. Use the “Taproot Tree System”. Go deeper and deeper. Be original, creative, avoid the present day plagiarism, copy and paste syndrome.

0.2     Ethics: In common parlance, the concept of “ethics” and “morality” are almost indistinguishable. They are profoundly interrelated and interdependent. The word “ethics” has its roots from the Greek term “ethos” which means good conduct, discipline or character. Ethics is therefore with what is objectively good or right for human interaction. According to Deon Rossouw and Leon van Vuuren (2010:5), ethics resolves around three key pillars. These are : “The self” “the good” and the other(s)[2]
The Good




               
             The Self                                                             The Other       
       NB: It covers all areas of human life: PESTERLS

0.3     Responsible Leadership
This refers to a deep vision, passion and belief in constant personal and institutional reflection of the short and long term impact of his or her personal and institutional decisions on humans, society, resources, academic, politics, the earth etc.[3] In short, a responsible and passionate leader, strongly emphasizes particularly on the relevance of building sustainable institutions and societies.


0.4     Responsible Governance
Admittedly, there is a close connection between governance and leadership. Governance simply a conscientious culture and will power of a leader to be a care holder, a protector, a servant, a sustainer and a protector of all material and non-material (human) resources or capital both for the current and the future generations of humans and non humans as a whole.

0.5     Justification And Rationale
The present day syndrome and culture of massive corruptive practices, irresponsible leaders, misuse of Tanzanians natural resources, riots, lawlessness, and dissatisfaction among citizens {politically, economically, socially, educationally etc) are clear causes an effects of irresponsible leadership and governance. Consequently, as the dictum goes, “No research no right to speak” it is justifiable to make this assertion that “No researches no right to lead”, “No research, no right to govern”. Fundamental ethical values, habitus and ethos such as justice, transparency, dignity, accountability, foresight, care, concern, participation, forgiveness, agape, peace, and solidarity form the heart of a good leadership model and best practice. Such ethical values in particular have vanished from the current leadership and governance model especially in Tanzania and Africa in particular.

0.6     Thought Provoking Questions 
Could we change our “Sillicon Savanah,” Mounts  into transformative values for leadership and governance in Tanzania?
Have we forgotten Nyerere’s key pillars for good leadership and governance? Are our leaders responsible in fostering good institutional management of people and resources? Do the current decisions and  actions of our political leaders (from the President, ministers, parliamentarians, intellectuals, economists, planners etc) reflect real responsible leaders or comedians? Do they have the courage to learn from either their own mistakes or those of others? Do they believe past lessons from researches etc? Do our leaders take seriously both the short and long term consequences of their personal and institutional decisions for the wellbeing of its people? Do our leaders have internal ethics and values for leadership and governance? To what extent do our leaders in Tanzania promise a political paradigm and system that really cares for sustainable management of both human and natural resources? Are we managing or damaging? Are we leading or simply pleading? What could academicians and leaders to be do? Personally, communally, collectively, nationally, etc. Could we rediscover the core values for responsible leadership and governance in Tanzania today?
Do we agree that new researchers have a greater chance to become responsible and inspiring leaders? Why, do we today have irresponsible leaders and governors in Tanzania? Does the introduction of Division 5 in the national Form IV examination reflect the type of leaders we have in Tanzania? Do we see the link between good researchers and good governance? What lesson could we learn from leadership giants like Mandela, Nkrumah, and Gandhi? What ethical principles constitute the essence of good leadership and governance?  Do our leaders and governors have a vision, passion and the necessary will to transform our societies?  Could we discuss today Silicon “Values” among African University Scholars? Could the current generation of Tanzanian researchers and leaders put themselves in the shoes of leaders like Nyerere, Mandela, Nkrumah, and Martin Luther King?

0.7     Structure of the Paper
This paper entails three main parts. In part one, an attempt is made to both underscore and show the relevance of research ethics and publication as the soul and engine for responsible leadership and good governance in Tanzania. The second part indicates the current leadership “void” and vacuum in Tanzania.





PART ONE:
1.0            RESEARCH AND ACADEMIC PUBLICATION AS THE SOUL AND MOTOR FOR THE RESPONSIBLE LEADERSHIP AND GOOD GOVERNANCE IN TANZANIA.
1.1     The Initial Planning Principle: (Luke 14:28)
a)        It starts with a dream, vision and passion
b)       It demands creativity moving from ignorance to Illusion then to innovation (3Is).
c)        It calls for an added value. It entails, clear critical and constructive attitude
d)       It demands a scholar to move from passion to profession.
e)        It demands true interest.
f)         It calls for newness and not repetition, “copy and paste” syndrome. Plagiarism etc.
True research and academic culture demands the value of originality, nobility and foresight that is forward looking.
g)        It underscores the truth that encapsulated in this saying: “If you do not use your brain you lose it.” Good research involves objective or descriptive or expository, argumentation and normative writing
h)       It demands a real pragmatic culture of translating brilliant ideas, literature knowledge and information to real life, praxis, and practicum. It demands human to escape stupidity, OMG (Oh My God) and mama mia regrets.


1.2           The Principle, No Research, No Right to Lead and Govern
a)        The famous British Researcher, academician and leader, Sir Francis said, Knowledge is power and the more knowledge there is, the more power we have.” (Beth Krasna: 2005:4a) Note that Today USA, China, Europe and the BRICS Countries are increasingly becoming power houses of the world. Why? More knowledge R& D etc.
b)       Winston Churchill once made this unforgettable and powerful remark: “The empires of the future will be the empires of the mind /not empires of the sword.”
c)        An outstanding scholar has recently made this powerful remark which says: “One has to be on the shoulders of giants so that one can see far.” Do we have the courage, passion and zeal to do this?

1.3           The Importance of Learning And Research Theory
a)        Opachchowski (2008:449) affirmed that, “Anyone who gives up learning and research in life must also give up living.”
b)       A famous Greek philosopher and thinker once remarked that “If one does not know to which port once is sailing to no wind is favorable.

1.4     The Classical Bill Gate’s Development Principle
a)        “If you are born poor, it I not your mistake, but if you die poor, it is your mistake.”
b)       The secret of China’s becoming the world’s giant today is through research, knowledge, R & D and innovations culture and passion.
1.5     The Christian Leadership and Prophetic Principle and Avantgarde
a)        It is based on the courage  to witness in a prophetic manner: (Is 4:14) John 1:12)
b)          It is the engine of total liberation and transformation.
c)        It is the source of integral/holistic development of the entire human person: Intellectually, spiritually, socially, psychologically, economically, technologically, politically, religiously, biologically etc.
d)          It is the formative and transformative “Soul” and engine to spearhead what Aidan G. Msafiri calls excellence in learning, research, publication, leadership, governance, management, service rendering and qualitative growth. (Cfr. Aidan G.Msafiri, Globalization of Concern p.2012:131)

1.6     The Golden Maxim Principle: Mt.22:37-39
a)           This underscores the fundamental motivation of engaging in research, publication, quality service, quality eldership, governance etc. to fellow humans and the planet (Sustainable Development Principle)
b)          It Occasions the discovery moments “Eureha.”
c)           It promotes responsibility to God and fellow humans.
d)          It reiterates the old Jewish saying: “When good people do nothing, evil increases.”
Conclusively, when one aspires to conduct an academic, :world class” research as a platform to be a leadership “guru” initial planning, research (descriptive, historical, statistical/empirical etc) methods and approaches and all qualitative research methods are necessary. However, Robert A. Day managing editor of the American Society microbiologists offers a powerful poignant remark for academic writing “To learn to write well, you should read good writing” It goes without saying “To learn to lead and govern well you should read and research good leadership and governance” (Aidan G. Msafiri Dec 2013) Hence need to develop both a coherent culture and ethic of research and leadership in Tanzania today. Let us now try to identify leadership crises, dilemmas and bad practices of the current generation of leaders in Tanzania. Indeed true researchers, academicians, professionals etc need to avoid the “OMG” dilemmas- “Operating head instead of leg graduation without transformation students remaining illiterate, Division 5 “homo idioticus” etc. Further, avoid the obsolete “Do yourself research and leadership model. Embark towards “Collaborative and Co- Design” model.



  
PART TWO
2.0            CURRENT LEADERSHIP VACUUM, AND GOVERNANCE DILEMMAS IN TANZANIA
2.1     Systematic Corruption as an indicator of failure of leadership and governance in Tanzania.
According to the recent December 2013 launched, “Tanzania Governance Review 2012 Transparency with Impunity by “Policy Forum, the following areas have been identified as being critical.
a)        Government’s engagement in “Secret” and unethical contracts rticularly in:
-         Gas and Oil resources
-         Mineral resources
-         Corruption involved in the power utility of TANESCO, Richmond Saga, DOWANS etc.
-         Government’s syndrome in allowing excessive tax exemptions to foreign investors- Hence, encouraging mispricing, tax havens etc.
-         Government ministries (e.g.) The Ministry of Tourism and Natural Resources during 2012 retained 25 bn Tsh. from 2011 revenue. This was unveiled by the Public Accounts Committee (TGR 2012:16)
-         Increase of public expenditure allowances etc. This accounted for about 16% of the wage bill.
-         Massive leadership vacuum and irresponsibility of so called “Prevention and combating of corruption bureau, the so-called (PCCB). There is little or no stern actions taken against corrupt leadership in Tanzania to date. What legal actions were taken against the following ex-ministers?
Mustafa Mkulo –for his failure to control budget deficit, inflation etc?
William Ngeleja for failure to avoid power crisis nightmares IN TANZANIA?
Omar Nundu and Athuman Mfutakamba for systemic and financial irregularities in the expansion programmes of the Port of Dar es Salaam?
Ezekiel Maige for failure to control poaching and export of live animals?
Haji Mponda and Lucy Nkya for failure to manage doctors’ strike and corruption in MSD?
Cyril Chami for phantom vehicle pre-shipment scam?
NB: The list and litany goes on and on . The same applies on human rights violation in 2013 by Prime Minister Pinda, Shukuru Kawambwa introduction of Division 5 and paralyzing educational quality and excellence, Kagasheki in failing to manage the pastoralists and agriculturist land crisis etc, etc.

b)                   Massive Leadership Failure of Local Governance.
-            Today, there is concrete evidence of systemic misuse of the development grants ay the local level.

c)                 Corruption in All CCM Elections
-            Recently the Director General of PCCB- Dr. Edward Hosea said: “Never before in the history of this country’s elections have there been (Such) widely reported allegations of corruption in the ruling party… like this year. Most political leaders are in corrupt dealings, and therefore are not expected to set examples in the community” (Zephaniah Musendo 2012: The Order of the day in Tanzania in Mirror Digest, 27th October, 2012)
-         Today, corruption in CCM elections has taken a new approach and devilish method. It has shifted form an individual bribing to network bribing!!!

2.2                     Wanton Leadership Failure of Education Quality and Delivery
a)                    Introduction of a ”shameful” National Form Four Examination Grading system by the Ministry of Education under the auspices of a myopic Motto “Big Results Now” which is quantity oriented, short –term designed non credible.
b)                   Poor teacher motivation and human resource capacity building to meet the shortage of qualified teachers.
c)                    Lac k of them government’s leadership in doing research for quality education and professionalism (NB: Academic Problems and challenges need academic solutions, not political propaganda.

2.3                     Government’s Ever Growing Inability in Promoting Human Rights and Rule of Law
a)  In October, 2011, the leader of the parliamentary team which made a critical post-mortem of the Richmond Saga, Dr. Harrison Mwakyembe (CCM) was sent to India for treatment due to possible poisoning.
b)    The ever growing disproportionate use of force by the police and Field Force Unit (FFU) particularly against genuine meetings and demonstrations organized by CHADEMMA
c)     The unacceptable killings and attacks and bombings of religious leaders, churches in Zanzibar, Arusha etc.
d)    The inhuman torture and force against the people of Mtwara in 2013 against government’s non dialogue decisions to build a gas pipe from Mtwara to Dar es Salaam. (Note the huge weakness and loopholes of the Tanzania’s natural Gas Policy of 2012)
e)     Lack of government’s moral and leadership authority in promoting true rule of law, democracy and good governance in many sectors in Tanzania. Hence, leading to an ever growing gap and inequalities between the rich and the poor, the elites and the non-elites etc.

2.4                        Massive leadership and Governance Incompetence in Tracking the Extractive Industry.
a)     Mining Companies in Tanzania take lion’s share  (Cfr. “It is disappointing to see some mining investors want to benefit alone… leaving the government and surrounding communities with nothing.” Jakaya Kikwete, Citizen, 28th April, 2012
b)    Lack of rue and timely peoples participation in the mining contracts, etc.
c)     Tanzania’s small or indigenous minors are not taken “seriously” as national stakeholders particularly in the extractive industry. Hence, minerals and other natural resources have become “a curse” instead of being “a blessing” especially to the poorest of the poor at the Bottom of the Pyramid. (BOP).

2.5                        Government’s Leadership Failure in Managing Land and Agriculture for people
a)     Massive Land Grabbing manic particularly by foreign investors has been on the rise year by year, HAKIARDHI has estimated that by September, 2012, about 1125, 000 ha had been formally leased to foreign investors!! (East African 7th November, 2012) NB> See the following facts and figures .Is the government managing or damaging these resources?
Company
Origin
CROP
Area (Ha)
1)    SEKAB BT
SWEDEN
Sugar Cane
400,000
2)    AGRISOL ENERGY  LLC

USA
Maize Livestock
325,000
3)    GREEN RESOURCES AS

NORWAY
Forestry, Carbon Sequestration
100,000
4)    DI Oils
UK
Jatriphe and
60,000
5)    KAPUNGA Rice Project
URT
Jatriphe and Rice

50,000
(Source: Katunda et al 2013:21-28)
b)    Lack of citizens’ land rights. Most of the 30 million Tanzanians who make 2/3 of the entire population simply practice semi subsistence farming based on mere customary rights of occupancy!!
c)     The “Kilimo Kwanza” Nightmare. Indeed, its vision and policy simply remain utopia.
d)    Constraints on the Cashew nut and cotton sectors industry in selling its products (Cfr: Delayed payments to Tandahimba Cashew nut growers which eventually led to the April 2012 disturbances and demonstration who were justly demanding for full payment of their cashew nut sales.

2.6                        Government’s Leadership Failure in Commodifying NGO’s, CBO’s; CSO’s and Public Official-Traffic Police
a)     There is growing evidence of growing and widespread fraud among Tanzania’s NGOs, CBO, CSOs e.g. corruption in WWF Programme. CFR: Corruption in WWF programmed a embezzlement  of  US and Norwegian funding by WWF staff –TGR 2013: 7 2 )
b)    Today, Tanzania’s Police unit and particularly, traffic police are dubbed as the most corrupt public service leaders being followed by the by judiciary, TRA health services and registry.
                    In short, all these are indicative of both institutional and systemic leadership failure by the current generation of Tanzanians’ leaders. This has brought about deep dissatisfaction and mistrust particularly on the poor part of the local populace and the  poor in particular. Could we say this is already the ”Point of No Return” or “Last Point of Return”. What should urgently be done to do away with this emerging malignant leadership cells and cultures? Let us now identify the intrusive link (“Nexus”) particularly between good ethical principles, virtues, habits and values research and ethics of good leadership and governance as a whole.

PART THREE
3.0                           ETHICAL PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE  IN TANZANIA: HOLISTIC RESEARCH ETHICS AS TOOLKIT

3.1                           The Ethical Principles of Justice and True Love (AGAPE).
 This demands future researches, leaders and to amalgamate and synergise the values justice, integrity, true sharing, love, tolerance, commitment, transformation, transparency, responsibility, engagement, care, empathy particularly with and for the poorest of the poor (“Walala Hoi, Wachovu,”etc)

3.2                        The Ethical Principle of Human Capital Development
Human persons and their intellectual ability to transform their lives runs as the key element in bringing about true socio-economic and technological development (Cfr: Nyerere’s Vision for development which demands “Watu, Ardhi, Siasa, Safi na Uongozi bora”)        

3.3                        The ABC Model/ Type of Leaders and Governors
a)     A Type of Leaders (E.g. Nyerere, Nelson Mandela 3%
-         Innovative, Efficiency
-         Effectiveness
-         Visionary, committed
-         Sacrifice oriented
-         Sustainability oriented
-         Agape oriented
-         Empathetic etc
-         If they are given paper they transform it to gold.

b)    B Type: 13%
-         Do the bare minimum
-         No sacrifice
-         Routine
-         If she/he is given gold it remains Gold, no added value.

c)        C Type of Leadership: 84%
-         Cheap popularity
-         Mediocre
-         Destructive
-         Opportunistic
-         Comedians
-         No added value
-         “If he/she is given gold, he/she changes it into rubbish.
(The current generation of leaders in Tanzania and Africa fall under this category PESTELR)

3.4                                    The Principles of Good  Preparation and Success Factors
a)     P.P.P.P.P (5Ps) Preliminary Preparation Prevents Poor Performance.
b)    Promote the value and virtue of Trust. (Aidan G. Msafiri 2012:82-84) calls “Trust” as a “New global currency” “a fundamental value” “a necessary social phenomena” “confidence” etc

3.5                                    The Principle of A Healthy Leadership
a)     It is founded on the following vitamins and values: true discipline, management ability, humility, communicative culture, pro-activeness, Incompetence, foresight, innovation, honesty, freedom and good character.
b)    It demands the leader to be a servant not boss who can emulate the values of healing what is wounded, empowering, etc.
c)     It demands us of the famous German saying which goes “he who wants to win must lead.”

3.6                                    The Principle of  Behavioral Change And Transformation
a)     It demands deep change as opposed to incremental/mathematical change, complacency and indifference.
b)    It demands the ethical virtues of basic human virtue of moderation and humility against the vices of greed (hyper-conservation) and arrogance both on part of researches and generation of future leaders. Hence, striving “being more” than “having more.”
c)     It demands true dedication and commitment particularly in promoting human dignity, respect, rights true happiness and common welfare.

3.7                                    The Principle of Best Practice and Role Modeling
a)     Remember, true leader researcher, writer “Can teach by what he/she says, but can teach better by what she/he does, but can do best by what he/she is
b)    A responsible leader is a giant an model of true ethical heavy weight and fitness-(Cfr:- Nelson “Madiba” Mandela, Julius Nyerere)
c)     A true and responsible leader struggles to establish a deep sense of ethical culture and life style.
-         He/she does not “talk the talk, but walk the talk”.
-         He/she knows what leadership “values do not simply fall from the skies”
-         He/she admits that values give birth to values. And |vices give birth to vices!!
-         He/she admits that power corrupts. and absolute power in academics, politics, etc. corrupts absolutely!!
-         He/she does not sit on his/her laurel , but he/she keeps awake making at every moment an in-depth and long term scenario scanning and prognoors- academically, politically. Economically, technologically, socially etc.
-         He/she values the different talents and abilities of his people. ( Cor 12:1-13:1ff)


Concluding Remarks
Admittedly, China for instance has become the worlds’ economic giant. Annually, it sends about 500 young people to do research in the USA or Europe. This is particularly due to her immense passion on research, innovation and leadership drive. This has its roots in research, knowledge creation and dissemination and application. This is the “condition sine qua non” for true change and leadership, politically, socially. Economically, technologically, ethically, etc.
Second, as the wise saying alludes: “Only composers of songs know the beauty of music notes,” the “nexus” between values, ethics, and ethos in research, leadership and governance need to be reinforced anew. As Winston Churchill once said “we ignored the age of action and now we are forced with the age of consequences”
Last but not least, as key stakeholders particularly in academic and political transformation we need to rediscover the centrality of ethics in all disciplines in particular. As Beth Krasna vividly observes that in “ten years time, ethics will be a major factor in decision making. Rules, box-ticking and checklists will not be sufficient; there will be need to create core values to be embedded in all organizations.” Globethics.net remains the leading toolkit and best practice of this philosophy not only theoretically but also practically.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Rev. Dr Aidan G. Msafiri was born on the 28th March, 1963 in Kilimanjaro Region. He is senior Lecturer and Professor of Social Ethics, Ethics of Climate Change, Business Ethics, and Philosophy at the Stella Maris Mtwara University College (STEMMUCO) a Constituent College of St. Augustine University of Tanzania (SAUT). He obtained first class PhD on Environmental Ethics at the Vienna, Austria University in 2003.He was the first Winner of the Austrian Prize for Dissertation (Thesis) on the Dialogue between economics, ethics and religion funded by the Austrian Union of Industries (2003). He is a prolific writer and researcher particularly on issues related to ethics, minerals, climate, environment, energy, health, education, human capital (resource), cyberspace, sustainable growth and Interfaith Ethics to Environmental issues.
He has published five academic books and several articles nationally and internationally.
 In November, 2011 he presented a paper at the Durban, South Africa International Conference on Climate Change, COP17.
Last year he published a very interesting Book titled” GLOBALISATION OF CONCERN II,” Geneva Globethics.net, 2012. In May 30th
 2013 he published two book chapters in different Books. “Democratic and Sustainable Governance and Natural Resource Management in Tanzania, in CETA/ Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, Volume II, ISSN:18217338 March 2013 pp.19-58. Also  Investing in Human Capital: A Prerequisite For Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction in Tanzania” in African Contextual Ethics, Elizaberth Nduku, Stueckelberger Christoph (Eds), Geneva, Globethics.net No13, May 30th 2013,  pp. 19-58.

REFERENCES
Krasna Beth, Thinking Ethics ( London: Profile Books, 2005)
Msafiri, Aidan G. Globalization of Concern I (Dar es Salaam, DUP, 2008)
Msafiri, Aidan G. Globalisation of Concern II (Geneva: Globethics.net Focus No. 8, 2012)
Msafiri, Aidan G. “Good Governance and Sustainable management of Natural Resources in Tanzania” in KOnrad Adenauer Stiftung (Kas) Journal Vol.II, Dar es Salaam, March 2013
Joerg Knoblauch et al “Mit Werten Zukunft gestalten” (Holzgeringen: Haensler Verlag, 2007)
Stueckelberger Christoph, Jesse N.K Mugambi (Eds.) Responsible Leadership Global and Contextual Perspective (Nairobi, : Acton Publishers, 2009)
Rossouw Deon, Leon van Vuuren, Business Ethics, Cape Town: Oxford University Press 2010)
Policy Forum, Tanzania Governance Review 2012: Transparency with Impunity (Dar es Salaam, Policy Forum, December 2013)


[1] En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Research definitions searched on the 1st December, 2013 at 12.00 noon
[2]Deon Rossouw et al, Business Ethics, (Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 2010) p.5
[3] Deon Rossouw, et ali, Business Ethics, p.289

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