Friday, September 12, 2014

BURIANI GABRIEL MWASYEBULE UMASKINI WETU WA FIKRA NDIO CHANZO CHETU CHA KUKOSA MAENDELEO.



Na Baraka Mfunguo,

Naandika nikiwa nimekwazwa na kuhuzunishwa sana na tukio lililotokea mkoa wa Mbeya wa kijana kuuawa kwa imani za kishirikina ati alikuwa anawafanya watoto misukule na kuwatumikisha ili afanikiwe kibiashara. Kijana Gabriel Mwandemwa ama Mwasyebule  wa kijiji cha Ikamambanda ameuawa tena ameuawa na watu ambao ni jirani zake, watu anaokula nao na kucheka nao wakimtuhumu tuhuma ambazo hawana uthibitisho nazo.

Uthibitisho waliokuwa nao kwake yeye ni maendeleo yake katika kilimo, ujenzi wa nyumba yake ambayo ameweka maru maru na gypsum pamoja na mipango yake ya baadaye ya kununua gari kulingana na biashara zake. Hao ni Watanzania, watanzania ambao ni mafukara na maskini wa kutupwa wa kufikiri. Kwao wao, maendeleo ni ufisadi, uchawi ama wizi au kuuza madawa ya kulevya ama kwa wanawake kuuza miili yao ama kupewa pesa na wanaume. Dhana ya kijinga na ya kipumbavu kabisa ambazo sio ngeni katika maisha yangu.

Hivi sisi ni nani aliyetufumba macho kiasi cha kuamini kwamba maendeleo ni uchawi? Na huko makazini wapo watu ambao huficha maendeleo yao kwa kigezo cha kufuatwa fuatwa  na vyombo vya sheria hata kama maendeleo hayo yametokana na juhudi zao. Ukijenga nyumba ya ghorofa utafuatwa na TAKUKURU, Usalama wa Taifa, TRA. karibia vyombo vyote vya sheria swali litakuwa. "Umejenga nyumba kubwa kama hii, hii pesa umepata wapi?" Na unakuta mtu yuko makini serious kweli kweli anataka kujua  na atataka kupata mpaka taarifa zako za kibenki ili aweze kuona mchanganuo na kubaini na kupata uthibitisho wa  kile unachokisema. 

Dhana hii nadhani ndio ugonjwa ambao unaotutafuna watanzania kwa sasa. Hatuna utamaduni wa kufanya kazi kwa bidii, juhudi ama maarifa na matokeo yake ni kuanza kukaa vijiweni na kuanza kupiga porojo za majungu dhidi ya watu. Hebu tujiulize huyo Mwasyebule amewakosea nini hao wanakijiji wenzake? Ndio hata kama tuhuma zao zingekuwa zina uthibitisho, je ni halali kumfanyia unyama ule?

Huu ndio umaskini ambao hautofautiani na ule wa kuwaua binadamu wenzetu ili tupate viiungo vyao ambavyo tunaamini tukivitumia tutatajirika, ama dhana ile ya kuwaua vikongwe kwa tuhuma za ushirikina.Akili zetu zimekaa kwenye masuala ya chuma Ulete (Mtwara wanaita cheje ama chitola) ili tuendelee. Hatukatai kwamba mambo hayo yapo. Lakini hebu tuangalie na wahenga wetu waliwezaje kutatua mambo yale. Mimi ninavyokumbuka kadiri ya hadithi za zamani nilizosoma watu wa aina hii walitafutiwa mahala pao wenyewe. Walitengwa! Sio kuuawa!


Maendeleo ya mtu yamekuwa kigezo cha kumtafutia sababu. Mas'aala haya si mageni kwangu kuna wakati nilipata changamoto ya kimaisha na watu wakaanza kusema afadhali alikuwa anaringa sana akiwa anapita na gari lake, bora atembee kwa miguu kama sisi yaani watu wako wa karibu kabisa wanakung'ong'a na wengine makazini wakadiriki kubambika tuhuma za wizi wa fedha na tuhuma ambazo hazielezeki. I mean seriously? Wakati nahifadhi pesa yangu, ama nimechukua mkopo hukuwepo umeiona gari unaanza ushabiki. Hao ndio watanzania. Na wakati ule wa Mwalimu hali ilikuwa mbaya zaidi maana ukionekana na sabuni za Rexona, Lux, Lifebuoy na mafuta yale ya mikebe ulikuwa unaitwa mlanguzi ama mhujumu uchumi kutokana na hali ya kisiasa wakati huo. Hii dhana ya kipumbavu na kijinga tumeibeba mpaka sasa ingawa watawala wetu wakati ule walikuwa na nia njema ya usawa.

Umefika wakati wa kubadilika sasa na ni wakati wa Serikali kupitia Wizara ya Elimu kuutazama upya mtaala wa Elimu ya Kujitegemea ambao wameutupa katika pipa la taka na kuubadili kuwa mtaala wa ujasiria mali. Nitakuja kuandika makala yake  ndefu nikiielezea dhana ya mtaala wa kujitegemea na ule wa ujasiriamali na faida zake ukianza kutumika mashuleni kuanzia shule za awali nikipata nafasi. Mtaala wa kujitegemea hauna tofauti na ule wa ujasiriamali kwani dhana nzima ya kujitegemea iliendana sawia na uzalishaji mali pamoja na kuzalisha kipato kutokana na kile ulichokizalisha sanjari na kukufanya usiwe tegemezi. Serikali inatakiwa iende mbele zaidi ya hapo ili kukabiliana na athari ya ukosefu wa ajira. Zamani mwanafunzi wa darasa la saba alikuwa amekamilika .

Sasa hivi tunazalisha fikra ambazo zinafikiria bongo flava, udaku, filamu za ngono na bongo movie, madawa ya kulevya, uchangudoa na wizi ama udokozi pamoja na umaskini wa fikra. Sina maana mbaya na wahusika wasikwazike ila ni lazima tutambue wahusika wa bongo flava, bongo movie ni watu wenye vipaji vyao na sio kila mtu atafanya bongo flava ama movie. Watanzania tunatakiwa tubadilike, tuamke la sivyo tutaachwa mbali sana na wenzetu. Yapo mambo mengi ambayo ni changamoto za kimuundo na za kisera katika nchi lakini ni vyema kwanza tukarekebisha akili zetu, mitazamo yetu na fikra zetu katika ulimwengu huu wa sayansi na teknolojia.


Buriani Mwasyebule, buriani jembe mimi nakuita jembe hata kama wao wamekutuhumu kuwa ni mchawi. Wamefaidika na nini walivyoutoa uhai wako? Wao ndio wachawi na watahukumiwa na dhamira zao kutokana na hila zao. Mwasyebule ulijitahidi katika kilimo cha viazi, ukajenga nyumba ukanunua pikipiki na ulikuwa na mpango wa kununua gari hizo ni juhudi zako binafsi. Lakini wamezikatisha Mungu atawahukumu.

Mwisho nawapa rai wajasiriamali wote wasikate tamaa ama kukatishwa tamaa na masuala haya ambayo mara nyingi yanachangia kuwakwamisha. Wasonge mbele wafanye kazi kwa bidii, juhudi na maarifa, walipe kodi ya nchi ili nchi iwe na maendeleo. Hii haimaanishi kwamba hawapo wale ambao sio waaminifu, wapo ila tunatakiwa tuache sheria ichukue mkondo wake dhidi yao. Tuache kujichukulia sheria mikononi, tuachane na dhana za kipumbavu na za kijinga zilizopo vichwani mwetu ambazo ndizo zinazoturudisha nyuma.

Thursday, September 11, 2014

MKUTANO WA MAAFISA MIPANGO KUFANYIKA OKTOBA



Mkuu wa Kitengo cha Mawasiliano Serikalini (Ofisi ya Rais, Tume ya Mipango), Bi Joyce Mkinga (Kushoto) akizungumza na waandishi wa habari (hawapo pichani) wakati alipokuwa akitoa taarifa ya kufanyika kwa Mkutano wa Maafisa Mipango unaotarajiwa kufanyika Mwezi wa Oktoba mwaka huu. Kulia ni Mchumi Mkuu (Ofisi ya Rais, Tume ya Mipango), Bw. Omary Juma.



JAMHURI YA MUUNGANO WA TANZANIA
OFISI YA RAIS, TUME YA MIPANGO



TAARIFA KWA VYOMBO VYA HABARI





Mkutano wa Maafisa Mipango kufanyika Oktoba



Ofisi ya Rais, Tume ya Mipango ipo katika maandalizi ya mkutano wa mwaka wa wachumi na maafisa mipango unatarajiwa kufanyika Oktoba 2014 jijini Dar es Salaam kwa lengo la kujadili masuala mbalimbali yanayohusiana na usimamizi wa uchumi na mipango hapa nchini.
Mkutano huu ambao ni wa kitaalamu unawakutanisha wataalamu mbalimbali kutoka tasnia za mipango, uchumi, takwimu na maendeleo, wenye wajibu wa kusimamia uchumi na mipango ambao hukutana kwa ajili ya kujadili na kubadilishana uzoefu juu ya sera, mipango na kujenga mtandao wa masuala ya maendeleo ya kitaaluma.
Mkutano huu unatoa fursa kubwa ya kuwakutanisha kwa pamoja wataalamu hao na kujenga uelewa wa pamoja juu ya uendeshaji wa shughuli mbalimbali za Serikali. Pia hutoa fursa za kujadiliana kwa pamoja juu ya mafanikio na njia za kukabiliana na changamoto kwa kubadilishana uzoefu na ujuzi kwenye masuala hayo. Mkutano huo ni muhimu katika kuimarisha utendaji kazi wa kada hizi kwa minajili ya kusukuma gurudumu la maendeleo ya kiuchumi na kijamii nchini.
Kwa kutilia mkazo masuala mbalimbali ya kimaendeleo yanayojitokeza hivi sasa, mkutano wa mwaka huu utajikita katika kujadili masuala yafuatayo;


i) Maendeleo ya Tasnia ya Wapanga Mipango (wachumi, maafisa mipango na watakwimu);
Mkutano utajadili fursa, na changamoto zilizopo katika kuleta maendeleo katika nchi.  Huko nyuma kada hizi zilikuwa zinaratibiwa na iliyokuwa Wizara ya Mipango Uchumi na Uwezeshaji. Kwa sasa watakuwa chini ya uratibu wa Ofisi ya Rais, Tume ya Mipango. Hatua hii itarahisisha utekelezaji wa mipango mbalimbali ya nchi.


ii) Maandalizi ya Mpango wa Pili wa Maendeleo wa Miaka Mitano (2015/16 – 2020/2021);
Utekelezaji wa Mpango wa Kwanza wa Taifa wa Maendeleo 2011/12 – 2015/16) unaendelea na tayari Ofisi ya Rais, Tume ya Mipango imeanza kufanya mapitio ya utekelezaji wake ili kujua mafanikio na changamoto. Hivyo, katika mkutano huo wapanga mipango wanaandaliwa waweze kuanza kufanya maandalizi kwa ajili ya Mpango wa Pili wa Maendeleo (2015/16 – 2020/21).


iii) Mwongozo wa Usimamizi wa Uwekezaji katika Sekta ya Umma;
Serikali imeandaa mwongozo wa Usimamizi wa Uwekezaji katika sekta ya Umma, lengo likiwa kuimarisha utendaji, ufanisi na uwajibikaji katika matumizi ya rasilimali za umma zilizotengwa kwa ajili ya miradi na program za maendeleo.

iv) Jinsi ya Kujiandaa na Uchumi wa Gesi
Mkutano utajadili ni kwa jinsi gani Tanzania inajipanga kufaidika na rasilimali ya gesi asilia. Kwa kifupi masuala ya yanayohusu uwekezaji katika gesi asilia, usimamizi na jinsi ya kutumia rasilimali na menejimenti ya mapato yatokanayo na gesi, pamoja na ushiriki wa wananchi katika fursa mbalimbali zinazotokana na ujio wa gesi hiyo. Utayarishaji wa wataalam katika eneo hilo la gesi husani vyuo vya ufundi, vyuo vikuu na kadhalika.
Washiriki wa mkutano huu ni pamoja na wakurugenzi wa sera na mipango, maafisa mipango kutoka kwenye wizara, Serikali za Mitaa, idara na wakala wa Serikali, pamoja na taasisi za kitaaluma na watafiti wanaojishughulisha na masuala ya maendeleo na uchumi.
Mkutano wa mwisho wa mwaka wa maafisa mipango ulifanyika mkoani Morogoro tarehe 12 Machi 2010 ambapo uliandaliwa na Wizara ya Fedha.  Mada nne zilizowasilishwa na kujadiliwa zilikuwa ni;

                i.  Wajibu wa wataalamu wa mipango katika Maendeleo ya Uchumi: Mipango ya Kiuchumi,               Utekelezaji na Uandaaji wa Taarifa;

      ii.            Soko la Pamoja la Afrika ya Mashariki;
    iii.            Ujasiriamali na Usimamizi wa Biashara kwa Wafanyabiashara Wadogo na Wakati; na 
    iv.            Ufanisi wa Uwekezaji kutoka nje katika Uchumi wa Tanzania

MWISHO

Imetolewa na:
Ofisi ya Rais, Tume ya Mipango


Wednesday, September 10, 2014

CCTV- FACES OF AFRICA: MWALIMU NYERERE

"Brave, strong and with a zeal to help liberate other African countries that were still under the rule of the colonialists, Mwalimu Julius Nyerere the founding father of Tanzania stood as a great leader who chose the path less travelled by many.
He challenged tyrannical leaders like Idi Amin and fought tirelessly for what he believed in, socialism."



AJALI MTWARA: GARI LA DERAYA MALI YA JWTZ LAPARAMIA NYUMBA


Ajali nyingine yatokea Mtwara na kuua wanajeshi watatu na raia mmoja baada ya gari la deraya kujaribu kukwepa lori la mabomba ya gesi na kuivaa nyumba iliyokuwa pembezoni. Habari na picha kwa hisani ya Jamii Forums. 



UPDATE AJALI YA GARI LA DERAYA MALI YA JWTZ:

WATU wawili wamekufa baada ya gari la Kijeshi (Kifaru cha Jeshi la Wananchi Tanzania JWTZ) kupoteza mwelekeo na kuparamia makazi ya watu mkoani Lindi na kupelekea watu wengine saba kujeruhiwa vibaya.

Taarifa zilizothibitishwa na Jeshi la Polisi mkoani humo zinaeleza kuwa ajali hiyo imetokea saa 05:30 asubuhi katika eneo la Mnonela barabara ya Mingoyo-Mtwara na kuwa ajali hiyo ilihusisha gari namba 018 APC mali ya JWTZ kikosi namba 83 Reget.

Gari hilo lilikuwa likitokea mkoani Mtwara kuelekea katika wilaya ya Nachingwea mkoani Lindi kikazi ambapo lilikuwa likiendeshwa na Askari mwenye namba MT 99241 Priv. Shadhil Nandonde pia haijawekwa wazi kuwa ni kazi gani lilikuwa linaenda kufanya shughuli gani.

Imeelezwa kuwa watu waliopoteza maisha katika ajali hiyo ni Askari mwenye namba MT 10728 Pr Pascal Komba na mwanamke aliyetambuliwa kwa jina la Somoe Kamtaule (75), mkulima wa eneo hilo aliyekuwa ndani ya nyumba.

“Lilipoteza mwelekeo na kuingia kwenye nyumba mbili na katika nyumba moja ilisababisha kifo cha mtu mmoja (mwanamke) na kwenye gari hilo Mwanajeshi mmoja alikufa pamoja na majeruhi saba kujeruhiwa vibaya”.

Aidha, majeruhi katika ajali hiyo ni Askari mwenye namba MT 10744 Pr. Simon Edward, Askari namba MT 106842 Pr.Feruz Haji, Askari mwenye namba MT 1077263 Pr.Omary Makao pamoja na Askari mwenye namba MT 99018 Pr.Mbaruk Duchi.

Wengine ni Askari mwenye namba MT 107442 Pr. Simon Masele, Askari mwenye namba MT 107218 Pr.Ndekenya R na Askari mwenye namba MT 99241 Pr.Shadhil Nandonde ambaye alikuwa dereva.

Kwa mujibu wa Polisi mkoani humo, chanzo cha ajali hiyo kinachunguzwa na majeruhi wamepelekwa katika Hospitali ya Rufaa ya mkoa wa Mtwara ya Ligula kwa ajili ya matibabu.

Wakati huo huo, watu 2 wameripotiwa kufa na wengine zaidi ya 20 kujeruhiwa, baada ya basi la Kampuni ya Super Feo kupinduka katika eneo la Sanangula nje kidogo ya mji wa Songea likitokea mkoani Ruvuma kwelekea mkoani Mbeya.

Majeruhi wa ajali hiyo wanatibiwa katika Hospitali ya Rufaa ya mkoa wa Ruvuma, huku chanzo cha ajali hiyo kikiwa bado hakijafahamika.

Monday, September 8, 2014

NYANGUMI AONEKANA PWANI YA MTWARA


Pichani ni Nyangumi aliyenaswa na wavuvi katika kina kifupi katika pwani ya Mtwara. Picha na Muhidin Michuzi

Wednesday, September 3, 2014

THE ACADEMICIANS AND INTELLECTS' PERSPECTIVE








YES WE LET AFRICA DOWN BIG TIME




By Dr. Kassala, C.D.N and Dr. Shoo,G (Courtesy of Dr Massawe, A)
I have watched both the video (Hyena Square) and the photo gallery (Maweni Farm Lodges). They have one thing in common: the violation of Africa's innocence (in the video it is the raping of the youth innocence, both male and female), and in the photo gallery it is the raping of the beautiful natural environment of Africa exploited selfishly by the Western guzzling economic appetite! Imagine: how much money has the video made for the producer? 

How much were the youths in the video paid by the maker? What has the Swedish done to transform the life of the local community in Maweni and in DSM for a more dignified human life? That is where liberation is required: the poor and marginalized should be liberated from a false consciousness; and the rich should be liberated from the evil spirit of greed and exploitation. This type of liberation can only be exercised by those who have committed themselves to the five criteria of socioeconomic transformation.

The African youth have now to be initiated into the movement for critical liberation education. We need to revive the spirit of Paul Frerre by whom Mwalimu Nyerere was inspired. His book (Paul's) by the name of "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" is now more than ever relevant for educating African young people so that they are liberated intellectually, and develop a critical consciousness.

 Young people have to be taught to question the status quo! University students have to be taught to critically analyze the prevailing dehumanizing system!!
The time is ripe now in Africa for an ethic-intellectual revolution! A revolution in terms of critiquing the obsolete and irrelevant models and paradigms of socioeconomic development. 

These paradigms and models have created the monsters we call 'global warming', 'anthropological poverty', 'resources greed', 'economic meltdown', 'capital flight', 'grand corruption', 'moral decadence', 'weapons of mass destruction', 'cultural commodification', 'neo-colonial democracy', and 'creepy globalization'. All these monsters are now pestering the continent of Africa because of our continent's virgin richness of its natural resources, and the African peoples' generous but naive simplicity!

This ethic-intellectual revolution should begin among us intellectuals with a vowed commitment. A commitment which is characterized by the spirit of the African Independence Founding Fathers, namely Kaunda, Kenyatta, Nyerere, Nkrumah, Mandela, Nasser, Selassie, Mugabe, Obote, Lumumba; together with the ancestral heroes of the kind of Mkwawa, Shaka, Milambo, Mangi Sina, Luthuli, and the rest. Such a spirit was founded on resistance: to resist any kind or form of degrading, exploiting and raping the African humanity and its geo-ecological haven on the continent. 

The intellectuals in Africa should revive the African critical spirit that was incarnated by the founding fathers and ancestral heroes through the struggle for the liberation of Africa. Today, all intellectuals are called upon to make use of their critical conscientiousness and ethical drive to resist the various manifestations of the monsters mentioned before. Resistance of these manifestations means committing oneself and together as a clan of revolutionaries and shout out the following whenever we are given the opportunity to speak:

1. We resist the abusive exercise authority that monopolizes power and prohibits transformation.
2. We resist the forces that create and perpetuate poverty, ignorance, disease, corruption and greed or accept these as inevitable or ineradicable.
3. We resist the denial of rights to any racial, ethnic, caste or indigenous groups, and the exploitation of women, youth and children.
4. We resist the structures of patriarchy that perpetuate violence against women and girls; which exclude their full participation in family and society.
5. We resist policies that deny freedom of expression; that concentrate the communication power in the hands of a few.
6. We resist doctrines of national security based on the use of weapons of mass destruction, military or biochemical, and self-justified interventions and occupations.
7. We resist the attitude to nature and creation which treats them only as resources for greedy economic exploitation.
8. We resist all human greed that makes land a commodity, which denies the bonds between land, ancestors and people, which devastates the earth for profit.
9. We resist authority that abuses, violates or exploits children and young people.
10. We resist all systems and structures that violate sacred human dignity and rights; that tolerate torture, disappearances, extra-judicial executions and the death penalty.

Any African intellectual who wants to join this ethical and intellectual resistance movement must use the following life-centred criteria to evaluate, critique and reconstruct the social and institutional arrangements at all levels of decision making and policy formulation:

1. Equity as basic fairness that also extends to other forms of life.
2. Accountability as the structuring of responsibility towards one another and the natural creation (=earth) itself.
3. Participation as the optimal inclusion of all involved.
4. Sufficiency as a commitment to meet the basic needs of all life.
5. Subsidiarity as determining the most appropriate level for decision making while supporting downward distribution of power relations.

It is indeed encouraging to read Prof.George N.Ayittey’s An Open Letter to Africa and Dr Kasalla’s rejoinder. Both pieces have triggered some dormant faculties in our brains to start working. Yes, Africa has been terribly betrayed by none else but us African intellectuals.
If in most of the African countries the betrayal was somehow hidden because there was no open pro people agenda which was set from the very first days of fighting for Uhuru, in Tanzania the situation is completely the opposite.

Tanzania, after independence, as opposed to most African countries for example had come up with a pro people policy in the Arusha Declaration.

Instead of embarking on a policy of Africanisation which literally meant kicking out whites and instead replacing them with blacks, which would have meant maintaining the status quo, the Arusha Declaration sought to make a total overhaul of the socio-economic-political fabric and strive to create a society which every human being would enjoy the fruits of liberation.

The Arusha Declaration aimed at creating a country where all human beings enjoyed the basic rights unimpeded. The right to education, shelter and education, the right to protection by the public etc. Land was declared public property and whoever owned it did that on behalf of others in the society.
The major means of production were put under the custody of the government on behalf of the public.

In the Arusha Declaration there was a very clear ethical code for leaders. It was stipulated very clearly that every government or party leader should be either a worker or a peasant and must in no way be connected with capitalism or feudalism, they must not have more than one job,  or earn more than one salary. It went on to say that leaders in the party or government must not own shares in companies or own houses for rent out.

During those years after the Arusha Declaration people could judge theirs leaders and know who adheres to the basic code of ethics laid down in the book and who did not.

The Arusha Declaration paved the way for mass mobilization of youth in different directions to create the much needed personnel to manage the post independence economy. It was a gargantuan task and it was during this period that the current ruling class of Tanzania, and indeed most African countries, was created.

This was the youth who used to ‘breath fire’ in anti-imperialist rallies and symposia all over the world.

Professor Ayittey is actually talking of the product of the Arusha Declaration. These are people who took to the streets and marched kilometres to support the Arusha Declaration. They are the ones who stood vigilant against reactionaries who came open and opposed the Arusha Declaration in public.

Is it not true that the current rulers of Tanzania are a product of the goodies of the Arusha Declaration?

How many of us would have had education at all leave alone higher and specialized education if the Nyereres, Nkrumahs and Kaundas did not nationalize schools in one way or the other? If education was not part of their wider programmes of the emancipation of the newly liberated peoples it is obvious that most of us would not have been what we are now that is the intellectuals of Africa.

What happened in Tanzania is very clear. The new ruling class which took over from the likes of Nyerere came up with a hidden agenda. After so many years of undercover stealing through kickbacks and misuse of public funds through different loopholes such as awarding tenders to relatives and friends who later on hid the proceeds to be enjoyed later by the sponsors, or overpaying suppliers of goods and services as a way of stashing away public monies for private use now or later, so called perestroika came as a blessing to them.

To them perestroika was the right time to come out of their cuckoos and legalize what they had been stealing and stashing under the bed all along.


They managed to manoeuvre their agenda through and persuaded the then Chair of the ruling Party, Ali Hassan Mwinyi who agreed with them that the leadership code of ethics in the Arusha Declaration was outdated and indeed very undemocratic so there was no reason why it should not be deleted from the Arusha Declaration! Talk of the great betrayal and here it is.


People who took to the streets to support the Arusha Declaration, people who indeed were up in arms and very vocal both locally and internationally in defense of peoples power and against all forms of oppression and imperialism have all of a sudden just when the Arusha declaration was 25 years old decided to do away with it. Indeed what they did was to do away with the masses. They all of a sudden decided to be the selected few, they came up with their style of leadership which was and is until today anti-people.


In order to achieve their goal of stealing and amassing wealth they shout democracy and practice autocracy. They do not want to listen to their people and they come up with all stupid and demonic laws and orders to silence the people. In order to make sure that the masses never demonstrate against them they create barriers by passing laws demanding that they be respected by the public because they represent the public meaning they more important and special than the normal citizen. 

In-fact in Tanzania they demand to be called excellencies, to be saluted by the police and military, to be escorted by sirens and sweep cars, to be accorded special reception wherever they go and to be allowed to raise their own salaries, per diems etc at will and the public does not have the right to question them because they are toiling for the well being of the public!

All of a sudden the stalwarts of the Arusha Declaration have become the stalwarts of international capital. What a betrayal. From staunch supporters of socialist ideals to staunch supporters of looting and oppression. Yes we have betrayed our people.

RESEARCH ETHICS AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOLKIT FOR FUTURE LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE: A TANZANIAN PERSPECTIVE





RESEARCH ETHICS AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOLKIT FOR FUTURE LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE: A TANZANIAN PERSPECTIVE


By
Rev. Dr. Aidan G. Msafiri (PhD)
Globethics.net. East Africa(Tanzania) Advisory Board Member
Mob: +255 754 679090
E-Mail: msafiriaidan@yahoo.com

Venue:
Stella Maris Mtwara University College Mtwara,
P.O. Box 674,
Mtwara, TANZANIA

Occasion:
Globethics.net. Symposium at STEMMUCO
Date: 13th December, 2013

0             Preamble
0.1     Research: it is defined in a number of different approaches by different scholars and academicians. The following include key synonyms to the word research as a noun: investigation, experimentation, analysis, fact finding, scrutiny, probing, post mortem, inspecting, reviewing, searching for knowledge, assessing, verifying, discovering etc. It involves both content and method.
On its broadest sense, Creswell defines research as “a process of steps used to collect and analyse information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue.”[1]
       The most common steps in conducting research include:
·        Identification of the theme/problem/challenge
NB: Be specific. Use the “Taproot Tree System”. Go deeper and deeper. Be original, creative, avoid the present day plagiarism, copy and paste syndrome.

0.2     Ethics: In common parlance, the concept of “ethics” and “morality” are almost indistinguishable. They are profoundly interrelated and interdependent. The word “ethics” has its roots from the Greek term “ethos” which means good conduct, discipline or character. Ethics is therefore with what is objectively good or right for human interaction. According to Deon Rossouw and Leon van Vuuren (2010:5), ethics resolves around three key pillars. These are : “The self” “the good” and the other(s)[2]
The Good




               
             The Self                                                             The Other       
       NB: It covers all areas of human life: PESTERLS

0.3     Responsible Leadership
This refers to a deep vision, passion and belief in constant personal and institutional reflection of the short and long term impact of his or her personal and institutional decisions on humans, society, resources, academic, politics, the earth etc.[3] In short, a responsible and passionate leader, strongly emphasizes particularly on the relevance of building sustainable institutions and societies.


0.4     Responsible Governance
Admittedly, there is a close connection between governance and leadership. Governance simply a conscientious culture and will power of a leader to be a care holder, a protector, a servant, a sustainer and a protector of all material and non-material (human) resources or capital both for the current and the future generations of humans and non humans as a whole.

0.5     Justification And Rationale
The present day syndrome and culture of massive corruptive practices, irresponsible leaders, misuse of Tanzanians natural resources, riots, lawlessness, and dissatisfaction among citizens {politically, economically, socially, educationally etc) are clear causes an effects of irresponsible leadership and governance. Consequently, as the dictum goes, “No research no right to speak” it is justifiable to make this assertion that “No researches no right to lead”, “No research, no right to govern”. Fundamental ethical values, habitus and ethos such as justice, transparency, dignity, accountability, foresight, care, concern, participation, forgiveness, agape, peace, and solidarity form the heart of a good leadership model and best practice. Such ethical values in particular have vanished from the current leadership and governance model especially in Tanzania and Africa in particular.

0.6     Thought Provoking Questions 
Could we change our “Sillicon Savanah,” Mounts  into transformative values for leadership and governance in Tanzania?
Have we forgotten Nyerere’s key pillars for good leadership and governance? Are our leaders responsible in fostering good institutional management of people and resources? Do the current decisions and  actions of our political leaders (from the President, ministers, parliamentarians, intellectuals, economists, planners etc) reflect real responsible leaders or comedians? Do they have the courage to learn from either their own mistakes or those of others? Do they believe past lessons from researches etc? Do our leaders take seriously both the short and long term consequences of their personal and institutional decisions for the wellbeing of its people? Do our leaders have internal ethics and values for leadership and governance? To what extent do our leaders in Tanzania promise a political paradigm and system that really cares for sustainable management of both human and natural resources? Are we managing or damaging? Are we leading or simply pleading? What could academicians and leaders to be do? Personally, communally, collectively, nationally, etc. Could we rediscover the core values for responsible leadership and governance in Tanzania today?
Do we agree that new researchers have a greater chance to become responsible and inspiring leaders? Why, do we today have irresponsible leaders and governors in Tanzania? Does the introduction of Division 5 in the national Form IV examination reflect the type of leaders we have in Tanzania? Do we see the link between good researchers and good governance? What lesson could we learn from leadership giants like Mandela, Nkrumah, and Gandhi? What ethical principles constitute the essence of good leadership and governance?  Do our leaders and governors have a vision, passion and the necessary will to transform our societies?  Could we discuss today Silicon “Values” among African University Scholars? Could the current generation of Tanzanian researchers and leaders put themselves in the shoes of leaders like Nyerere, Mandela, Nkrumah, and Martin Luther King?

0.7     Structure of the Paper
This paper entails three main parts. In part one, an attempt is made to both underscore and show the relevance of research ethics and publication as the soul and engine for responsible leadership and good governance in Tanzania. The second part indicates the current leadership “void” and vacuum in Tanzania.





PART ONE:
1.0            RESEARCH AND ACADEMIC PUBLICATION AS THE SOUL AND MOTOR FOR THE RESPONSIBLE LEADERSHIP AND GOOD GOVERNANCE IN TANZANIA.
1.1     The Initial Planning Principle: (Luke 14:28)
a)        It starts with a dream, vision and passion
b)       It demands creativity moving from ignorance to Illusion then to innovation (3Is).
c)        It calls for an added value. It entails, clear critical and constructive attitude
d)       It demands a scholar to move from passion to profession.
e)        It demands true interest.
f)         It calls for newness and not repetition, “copy and paste” syndrome. Plagiarism etc.
True research and academic culture demands the value of originality, nobility and foresight that is forward looking.
g)        It underscores the truth that encapsulated in this saying: “If you do not use your brain you lose it.” Good research involves objective or descriptive or expository, argumentation and normative writing
h)       It demands a real pragmatic culture of translating brilliant ideas, literature knowledge and information to real life, praxis, and practicum. It demands human to escape stupidity, OMG (Oh My God) and mama mia regrets.


1.2           The Principle, No Research, No Right to Lead and Govern
a)        The famous British Researcher, academician and leader, Sir Francis said, Knowledge is power and the more knowledge there is, the more power we have.” (Beth Krasna: 2005:4a) Note that Today USA, China, Europe and the BRICS Countries are increasingly becoming power houses of the world. Why? More knowledge R& D etc.
b)       Winston Churchill once made this unforgettable and powerful remark: “The empires of the future will be the empires of the mind /not empires of the sword.”
c)        An outstanding scholar has recently made this powerful remark which says: “One has to be on the shoulders of giants so that one can see far.” Do we have the courage, passion and zeal to do this?

1.3           The Importance of Learning And Research Theory
a)        Opachchowski (2008:449) affirmed that, “Anyone who gives up learning and research in life must also give up living.”
b)       A famous Greek philosopher and thinker once remarked that “If one does not know to which port once is sailing to no wind is favorable.

1.4     The Classical Bill Gate’s Development Principle
a)        “If you are born poor, it I not your mistake, but if you die poor, it is your mistake.”
b)       The secret of China’s becoming the world’s giant today is through research, knowledge, R & D and innovations culture and passion.
1.5     The Christian Leadership and Prophetic Principle and Avantgarde
a)        It is based on the courage  to witness in a prophetic manner: (Is 4:14) John 1:12)
b)          It is the engine of total liberation and transformation.
c)        It is the source of integral/holistic development of the entire human person: Intellectually, spiritually, socially, psychologically, economically, technologically, politically, religiously, biologically etc.
d)          It is the formative and transformative “Soul” and engine to spearhead what Aidan G. Msafiri calls excellence in learning, research, publication, leadership, governance, management, service rendering and qualitative growth. (Cfr. Aidan G.Msafiri, Globalization of Concern p.2012:131)

1.6     The Golden Maxim Principle: Mt.22:37-39
a)           This underscores the fundamental motivation of engaging in research, publication, quality service, quality eldership, governance etc. to fellow humans and the planet (Sustainable Development Principle)
b)          It Occasions the discovery moments “Eureha.”
c)           It promotes responsibility to God and fellow humans.
d)          It reiterates the old Jewish saying: “When good people do nothing, evil increases.”
Conclusively, when one aspires to conduct an academic, :world class” research as a platform to be a leadership “guru” initial planning, research (descriptive, historical, statistical/empirical etc) methods and approaches and all qualitative research methods are necessary. However, Robert A. Day managing editor of the American Society microbiologists offers a powerful poignant remark for academic writing “To learn to write well, you should read good writing” It goes without saying “To learn to lead and govern well you should read and research good leadership and governance” (Aidan G. Msafiri Dec 2013) Hence need to develop both a coherent culture and ethic of research and leadership in Tanzania today. Let us now try to identify leadership crises, dilemmas and bad practices of the current generation of leaders in Tanzania. Indeed true researchers, academicians, professionals etc need to avoid the “OMG” dilemmas- “Operating head instead of leg graduation without transformation students remaining illiterate, Division 5 “homo idioticus” etc. Further, avoid the obsolete “Do yourself research and leadership model. Embark towards “Collaborative and Co- Design” model.



  
PART TWO
2.0            CURRENT LEADERSHIP VACUUM, AND GOVERNANCE DILEMMAS IN TANZANIA
2.1     Systematic Corruption as an indicator of failure of leadership and governance in Tanzania.
According to the recent December 2013 launched, “Tanzania Governance Review 2012 Transparency with Impunity by “Policy Forum, the following areas have been identified as being critical.
a)        Government’s engagement in “Secret” and unethical contracts rticularly in:
-         Gas and Oil resources
-         Mineral resources
-         Corruption involved in the power utility of TANESCO, Richmond Saga, DOWANS etc.
-         Government’s syndrome in allowing excessive tax exemptions to foreign investors- Hence, encouraging mispricing, tax havens etc.
-         Government ministries (e.g.) The Ministry of Tourism and Natural Resources during 2012 retained 25 bn Tsh. from 2011 revenue. This was unveiled by the Public Accounts Committee (TGR 2012:16)
-         Increase of public expenditure allowances etc. This accounted for about 16% of the wage bill.
-         Massive leadership vacuum and irresponsibility of so called “Prevention and combating of corruption bureau, the so-called (PCCB). There is little or no stern actions taken against corrupt leadership in Tanzania to date. What legal actions were taken against the following ex-ministers?
Mustafa Mkulo –for his failure to control budget deficit, inflation etc?
William Ngeleja for failure to avoid power crisis nightmares IN TANZANIA?
Omar Nundu and Athuman Mfutakamba for systemic and financial irregularities in the expansion programmes of the Port of Dar es Salaam?
Ezekiel Maige for failure to control poaching and export of live animals?
Haji Mponda and Lucy Nkya for failure to manage doctors’ strike and corruption in MSD?
Cyril Chami for phantom vehicle pre-shipment scam?
NB: The list and litany goes on and on . The same applies on human rights violation in 2013 by Prime Minister Pinda, Shukuru Kawambwa introduction of Division 5 and paralyzing educational quality and excellence, Kagasheki in failing to manage the pastoralists and agriculturist land crisis etc, etc.

b)                   Massive Leadership Failure of Local Governance.
-            Today, there is concrete evidence of systemic misuse of the development grants ay the local level.

c)                 Corruption in All CCM Elections
-            Recently the Director General of PCCB- Dr. Edward Hosea said: “Never before in the history of this country’s elections have there been (Such) widely reported allegations of corruption in the ruling party… like this year. Most political leaders are in corrupt dealings, and therefore are not expected to set examples in the community” (Zephaniah Musendo 2012: The Order of the day in Tanzania in Mirror Digest, 27th October, 2012)
-         Today, corruption in CCM elections has taken a new approach and devilish method. It has shifted form an individual bribing to network bribing!!!

2.2                     Wanton Leadership Failure of Education Quality and Delivery
a)                    Introduction of a ”shameful” National Form Four Examination Grading system by the Ministry of Education under the auspices of a myopic Motto “Big Results Now” which is quantity oriented, short –term designed non credible.
b)                   Poor teacher motivation and human resource capacity building to meet the shortage of qualified teachers.
c)                    Lac k of them government’s leadership in doing research for quality education and professionalism (NB: Academic Problems and challenges need academic solutions, not political propaganda.

2.3                     Government’s Ever Growing Inability in Promoting Human Rights and Rule of Law
a)  In October, 2011, the leader of the parliamentary team which made a critical post-mortem of the Richmond Saga, Dr. Harrison Mwakyembe (CCM) was sent to India for treatment due to possible poisoning.
b)    The ever growing disproportionate use of force by the police and Field Force Unit (FFU) particularly against genuine meetings and demonstrations organized by CHADEMMA
c)     The unacceptable killings and attacks and bombings of religious leaders, churches in Zanzibar, Arusha etc.
d)    The inhuman torture and force against the people of Mtwara in 2013 against government’s non dialogue decisions to build a gas pipe from Mtwara to Dar es Salaam. (Note the huge weakness and loopholes of the Tanzania’s natural Gas Policy of 2012)
e)     Lack of government’s moral and leadership authority in promoting true rule of law, democracy and good governance in many sectors in Tanzania. Hence, leading to an ever growing gap and inequalities between the rich and the poor, the elites and the non-elites etc.

2.4                        Massive leadership and Governance Incompetence in Tracking the Extractive Industry.
a)     Mining Companies in Tanzania take lion’s share  (Cfr. “It is disappointing to see some mining investors want to benefit alone… leaving the government and surrounding communities with nothing.” Jakaya Kikwete, Citizen, 28th April, 2012
b)    Lack of rue and timely peoples participation in the mining contracts, etc.
c)     Tanzania’s small or indigenous minors are not taken “seriously” as national stakeholders particularly in the extractive industry. Hence, minerals and other natural resources have become “a curse” instead of being “a blessing” especially to the poorest of the poor at the Bottom of the Pyramid. (BOP).

2.5                        Government’s Leadership Failure in Managing Land and Agriculture for people
a)     Massive Land Grabbing manic particularly by foreign investors has been on the rise year by year, HAKIARDHI has estimated that by September, 2012, about 1125, 000 ha had been formally leased to foreign investors!! (East African 7th November, 2012) NB> See the following facts and figures .Is the government managing or damaging these resources?
Company
Origin
CROP
Area (Ha)
1)    SEKAB BT
SWEDEN
Sugar Cane
400,000
2)    AGRISOL ENERGY  LLC

USA
Maize Livestock
325,000
3)    GREEN RESOURCES AS

NORWAY
Forestry, Carbon Sequestration
100,000
4)    DI Oils
UK
Jatriphe and
60,000
5)    KAPUNGA Rice Project
URT
Jatriphe and Rice

50,000
(Source: Katunda et al 2013:21-28)
b)    Lack of citizens’ land rights. Most of the 30 million Tanzanians who make 2/3 of the entire population simply practice semi subsistence farming based on mere customary rights of occupancy!!
c)     The “Kilimo Kwanza” Nightmare. Indeed, its vision and policy simply remain utopia.
d)    Constraints on the Cashew nut and cotton sectors industry in selling its products (Cfr: Delayed payments to Tandahimba Cashew nut growers which eventually led to the April 2012 disturbances and demonstration who were justly demanding for full payment of their cashew nut sales.

2.6                        Government’s Leadership Failure in Commodifying NGO’s, CBO’s; CSO’s and Public Official-Traffic Police
a)     There is growing evidence of growing and widespread fraud among Tanzania’s NGOs, CBO, CSOs e.g. corruption in WWF Programme. CFR: Corruption in WWF programmed a embezzlement  of  US and Norwegian funding by WWF staff –TGR 2013: 7 2 )
b)    Today, Tanzania’s Police unit and particularly, traffic police are dubbed as the most corrupt public service leaders being followed by the by judiciary, TRA health services and registry.
                    In short, all these are indicative of both institutional and systemic leadership failure by the current generation of Tanzanians’ leaders. This has brought about deep dissatisfaction and mistrust particularly on the poor part of the local populace and the  poor in particular. Could we say this is already the ”Point of No Return” or “Last Point of Return”. What should urgently be done to do away with this emerging malignant leadership cells and cultures? Let us now identify the intrusive link (“Nexus”) particularly between good ethical principles, virtues, habits and values research and ethics of good leadership and governance as a whole.

PART THREE
3.0                           ETHICAL PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE  IN TANZANIA: HOLISTIC RESEARCH ETHICS AS TOOLKIT

3.1                           The Ethical Principles of Justice and True Love (AGAPE).
 This demands future researches, leaders and to amalgamate and synergise the values justice, integrity, true sharing, love, tolerance, commitment, transformation, transparency, responsibility, engagement, care, empathy particularly with and for the poorest of the poor (“Walala Hoi, Wachovu,”etc)

3.2                        The Ethical Principle of Human Capital Development
Human persons and their intellectual ability to transform their lives runs as the key element in bringing about true socio-economic and technological development (Cfr: Nyerere’s Vision for development which demands “Watu, Ardhi, Siasa, Safi na Uongozi bora”)        

3.3                        The ABC Model/ Type of Leaders and Governors
a)     A Type of Leaders (E.g. Nyerere, Nelson Mandela 3%
-         Innovative, Efficiency
-         Effectiveness
-         Visionary, committed
-         Sacrifice oriented
-         Sustainability oriented
-         Agape oriented
-         Empathetic etc
-         If they are given paper they transform it to gold.

b)    B Type: 13%
-         Do the bare minimum
-         No sacrifice
-         Routine
-         If she/he is given gold it remains Gold, no added value.

c)        C Type of Leadership: 84%
-         Cheap popularity
-         Mediocre
-         Destructive
-         Opportunistic
-         Comedians
-         No added value
-         “If he/she is given gold, he/she changes it into rubbish.
(The current generation of leaders in Tanzania and Africa fall under this category PESTELR)

3.4                                    The Principles of Good  Preparation and Success Factors
a)     P.P.P.P.P (5Ps) Preliminary Preparation Prevents Poor Performance.
b)    Promote the value and virtue of Trust. (Aidan G. Msafiri 2012:82-84) calls “Trust” as a “New global currency” “a fundamental value” “a necessary social phenomena” “confidence” etc

3.5                                    The Principle of A Healthy Leadership
a)     It is founded on the following vitamins and values: true discipline, management ability, humility, communicative culture, pro-activeness, Incompetence, foresight, innovation, honesty, freedom and good character.
b)    It demands the leader to be a servant not boss who can emulate the values of healing what is wounded, empowering, etc.
c)     It demands us of the famous German saying which goes “he who wants to win must lead.”

3.6                                    The Principle of  Behavioral Change And Transformation
a)     It demands deep change as opposed to incremental/mathematical change, complacency and indifference.
b)    It demands the ethical virtues of basic human virtue of moderation and humility against the vices of greed (hyper-conservation) and arrogance both on part of researches and generation of future leaders. Hence, striving “being more” than “having more.”
c)     It demands true dedication and commitment particularly in promoting human dignity, respect, rights true happiness and common welfare.

3.7                                    The Principle of Best Practice and Role Modeling
a)     Remember, true leader researcher, writer “Can teach by what he/she says, but can teach better by what she/he does, but can do best by what he/she is
b)    A responsible leader is a giant an model of true ethical heavy weight and fitness-(Cfr:- Nelson “Madiba” Mandela, Julius Nyerere)
c)     A true and responsible leader struggles to establish a deep sense of ethical culture and life style.
-         He/she does not “talk the talk, but walk the talk”.
-         He/she knows what leadership “values do not simply fall from the skies”
-         He/she admits that values give birth to values. And |vices give birth to vices!!
-         He/she admits that power corrupts. and absolute power in academics, politics, etc. corrupts absolutely!!
-         He/she does not sit on his/her laurel , but he/she keeps awake making at every moment an in-depth and long term scenario scanning and prognoors- academically, politically. Economically, technologically, socially etc.
-         He/she values the different talents and abilities of his people. ( Cor 12:1-13:1ff)


Concluding Remarks
Admittedly, China for instance has become the worlds’ economic giant. Annually, it sends about 500 young people to do research in the USA or Europe. This is particularly due to her immense passion on research, innovation and leadership drive. This has its roots in research, knowledge creation and dissemination and application. This is the “condition sine qua non” for true change and leadership, politically, socially. Economically, technologically, ethically, etc.
Second, as the wise saying alludes: “Only composers of songs know the beauty of music notes,” the “nexus” between values, ethics, and ethos in research, leadership and governance need to be reinforced anew. As Winston Churchill once said “we ignored the age of action and now we are forced with the age of consequences”
Last but not least, as key stakeholders particularly in academic and political transformation we need to rediscover the centrality of ethics in all disciplines in particular. As Beth Krasna vividly observes that in “ten years time, ethics will be a major factor in decision making. Rules, box-ticking and checklists will not be sufficient; there will be need to create core values to be embedded in all organizations.” Globethics.net remains the leading toolkit and best practice of this philosophy not only theoretically but also practically.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Rev. Dr Aidan G. Msafiri was born on the 28th March, 1963 in Kilimanjaro Region. He is senior Lecturer and Professor of Social Ethics, Ethics of Climate Change, Business Ethics, and Philosophy at the Stella Maris Mtwara University College (STEMMUCO) a Constituent College of St. Augustine University of Tanzania (SAUT). He obtained first class PhD on Environmental Ethics at the Vienna, Austria University in 2003.He was the first Winner of the Austrian Prize for Dissertation (Thesis) on the Dialogue between economics, ethics and religion funded by the Austrian Union of Industries (2003). He is a prolific writer and researcher particularly on issues related to ethics, minerals, climate, environment, energy, health, education, human capital (resource), cyberspace, sustainable growth and Interfaith Ethics to Environmental issues.
He has published five academic books and several articles nationally and internationally.
 In November, 2011 he presented a paper at the Durban, South Africa International Conference on Climate Change, COP17.
Last year he published a very interesting Book titled” GLOBALISATION OF CONCERN II,” Geneva Globethics.net, 2012. In May 30th
 2013 he published two book chapters in different Books. “Democratic and Sustainable Governance and Natural Resource Management in Tanzania, in CETA/ Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, Volume II, ISSN:18217338 March 2013 pp.19-58. Also  Investing in Human Capital: A Prerequisite For Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction in Tanzania” in African Contextual Ethics, Elizaberth Nduku, Stueckelberger Christoph (Eds), Geneva, Globethics.net No13, May 30th 2013,  pp. 19-58.

REFERENCES
Krasna Beth, Thinking Ethics ( London: Profile Books, 2005)
Msafiri, Aidan G. Globalization of Concern I (Dar es Salaam, DUP, 2008)
Msafiri, Aidan G. Globalisation of Concern II (Geneva: Globethics.net Focus No. 8, 2012)
Msafiri, Aidan G. “Good Governance and Sustainable management of Natural Resources in Tanzania” in KOnrad Adenauer Stiftung (Kas) Journal Vol.II, Dar es Salaam, March 2013
Joerg Knoblauch et al “Mit Werten Zukunft gestalten” (Holzgeringen: Haensler Verlag, 2007)
Stueckelberger Christoph, Jesse N.K Mugambi (Eds.) Responsible Leadership Global and Contextual Perspective (Nairobi, : Acton Publishers, 2009)
Rossouw Deon, Leon van Vuuren, Business Ethics, Cape Town: Oxford University Press 2010)
Policy Forum, Tanzania Governance Review 2012: Transparency with Impunity (Dar es Salaam, Policy Forum, December 2013)


[1] En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Research definitions searched on the 1st December, 2013 at 12.00 noon
[2]Deon Rossouw et al, Business Ethics, (Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 2010) p.5
[3] Deon Rossouw, et ali, Business Ethics, p.289